Cuban Frogs

After big a rain a large puddle of water forms at the boat landing in Great Cruz Bay. At first I thought about mosquitoes breeding, but after looking at it I wondered if mosquito larva could survive in that mini-pond as it was host to hundreds of Cuban treefrog tadpoles.

Cuban TreefrogTadpoles at Great Cruz BayThe Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) is native to Cuba, the Cayman Islands and the Bahamas. Here in the Virgin Islands they are considered an invasive species. They are much larger than our native frogs and have a voracious appetite eating all kinds of insects and lizards as well as consuming our own tiny native frogs. Moreover, their tadpoles compete with our native tadpoles crowding them out and eating their food.

cuban treefrog tadpole

Cuban treefrog magnified
Cuban treefrog head magnified

Another nasty fact about the Cuban treefrog that the slime on their skin is an irritants that can effect people’s noses and eyes and may even cause breathing problems.

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Easter Rock

The Legend of Easter Rock & the Geology of St. John

Excerpted from St. John Off The Beaten Track

Easter Rock rises above the treetops on the seaward side of the North Shore Road between Gibney Beach and Peace Hill. A lone sentinel standing a silent watch over tranquil Hawksnest Bay, the rock has inspired both romantic tales and scientific inquiries.

Island legend tells us this huge rounded boulder makes its way down to the sea every year on the night before Easter Sunday. When it gets to the bay, it takes a drink of water and then returns to its majestic perch. This takes place before the morning sun rises over Peace Hill and before the first motorists pass by, unaware of the awesome event that has just transpired. Doubting Thomases will need to explain why even if Easter Sunday follows the driest of nights, during the driest of droughts, Easter Rock will still be wet early on Easter morning.

Although geologists have not yet succeeded in explaining Easter Rock’s propensity to go down to the sea on Easter Sunday for a drink of water, they can tell us about the origin of this massive boulder, which is the only one of its kind in the valley.

The outer crust of the Earth consists of large masses of slowly moving rock called tectonic plates. About 100 million years ago, one of these plates, called the North American plate, which was moving towards the west, encountered another tectonic plate called the Caribbean plate, which was moving in the same direction.

Life in the Caribbean has long been classified as slower moving than in the fast-paced world of continental America. This phenomenon apparently has a historical and geological foundation because a significant factor in the creation of many of the Caribbean islands, including St. John, is the fact that the Caribbean plate happened to be moving at a slower pace than its continental counterpart.

Consequently, when the North American plate overtook the slower moving Caribbean plate, the American plate, being denser and heavier, slid under the Caribbean plate and pushed it up. The friction from the two giant masses of solid rock grinding against one another produced a heat so intense that it melted some of the rock between the two plates. The fiery, liquefied rock, called magma, built up in enclosed pockets, called magma chambers, and exerted an ever-increasing pressure on the surrounding rock. When that pressure became so great that it could not be contained any longer, the magma broke through its rocky chamber and spewed forth violently into the ocean. This event is called a volcano.

Normally, when super-hot magma comes in contact with cold ocean water, the magma explodes and is dispersed over a great area. In this case, however, the eruption occurred at a depth of 15,000 feet, or nearly three miles, below the surface of the ocean. At this great depth the water pressure is nearly 7,000 pounds per square inch, a pressure that was sufficient to keep the magma from exploding on contact with water and instead causing it to be deposited on the ocean floor in giant solid sheets.

Coinciding with this volcanic activity and the laying down of rock, the action of the American plate sliding under the Caribbean plate caused the latter to bulge at the edges. The combination of these events resulted in the beginnings of a mountain range that was to become the islands of the Greater Antilles. This process of volcanic activity and uplifting continued for millions of years and caused the newly formed mountains to move closer to the surface.

It was during the next period of St. John’s development that Easter Rock was born. A series of volcanoes erupted in the area of what is today called Pillsbury Sound. This time the water was relatively shallow and the volcanoes erupted explosively. The shower of rocks, solidified volcanic ash, and molten lava added substance and height to the older solid sheets of rock and, in conjunction with the continued uplifting of the area, eventually brought parts of the rocky underwater mass above sea level to form islands.

The awesome power of these violent eruptions also served to break off huge chunks of the older rock, heaving them into the air. One of these massive fragments ended up just above what was to become Hawksnest Bay. That majestic boulder, now known as Easter Rock, not only goes down to the sea every Easter for a drink of water, but also serves as an enduring reminder of the fiery beginnings of the island of St. John.

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Trunk Bay Sand

The moderate north swell that we’ve been experiencing the last few days has produced small breaking waves on the Trunk Bay shoreline. This in turn has brought some new sand from the reef to be deposited on shore.

Walking down the beach, the sand was smooth and fine and felt soft on my feet.

Trunk Bay Beach SandI found an empty paper cup, filled it with some sand that I collected near the water’s edge and brought it home, where I placed it under my digital microscope to see the sand particles in detail.

Trunk Bay Sand Magnified


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Virgin Island Pineapple

The Virgin Island pineapple is generally smaller than the commercially grown Hawaiian variety.

But, it’s also much sweeter!

The fruit is white rather than yellow and it should really be moved from the category of “fruit” to the “candy” category!

Pineapples can produce seeds if the plant is pollinated, which is usually performed by hummingbirds. Seeds detract from the quality of the fruit (like some other popular plants), so pollination is discouraged. Hawaii, for example, prohibits the importation of hummingbirds.

Pineapple seeds

Our hummingbirds seem to like other flowers better than pineapples, so pollination is rare.

Gardeners here on St. John plant pineapples from slips, which commercial growers call suckers.

Slips that mature the quickest, often the by the next year come from the old palnt after it produces the first pineapple. The slip can be left where it is or cut and replanted elsewhere in the garden.

pineapple sucker

Slips can also come from the bottom of the fruit, these take a bit longer to flower, usually during the second season.

pineapple slip

Finally, the slip can come from the top of the fruit, but pineapples grown this way take the longest amount of time to flower, possibly three seasons.Pineapple Slip

The Garden

Pineapple Garden
Pineapple Garden

First Flower

pineapple flower

Ready to Ripen

St. John Virgin islands Pineapple
Pineapple tilts downward when almost ready to ripen

Sweet, Delicious, White Virgin Islands Pineapple

St. John Virgin Islands Pineapple

Read more about pineapples from Wikipedia

For those interested in planting their own pineapples from pineapple tops, take a look at “How to Plant and Grow a Pineapple Top


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View From the Caneel Hill Summit

If you don’t mind a somewhat strenuous uphill climb, or if you appreciate the exercise in a natural environment, the trail to the top of Caneel Hill and beyond, if you like, is a “St. John Off The Beaten Track” highly recommended hike.

There are two ways to do this. You can start at the beginning of the Caneel and Margaret Hill Trail starting from the bottom of the North Shore Road (Route 20) near Mongoose Junction or take the Caneel Hill Spur Trail at the top of the first hill on Route 20. For more information, maps and photos download your St. John Off The Beaten Track App or check out the “Trails” page of the website.

Caneel Hill Overlook: Cruz BayLooking west from the Caneel Hill Tower, you get a bird’s eye view of Cruz Bay and further west you’ll see some of the cays in Pillsbury Sound and the east end of St. Thomas.

Caneel Bay ViewLooking north and west, you’ll look down at Caneel Bay and out to the outlying  islands, rocks and cays in that direction.

View of Jost Van Dyke from the Caneel Hill TrailMore to the east is a view of Jost Van Dyke in the British Virgin islands and the Narrows Passage between Great Thatch Cay and Mary’s Point on St. John.

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Trunk Bay Snorkel

Visitors to St. John often have a Trunk Bay Trail snorkel on the top of their St. John visit bucket list, but to seasoned St. John snorkelers, the Trunk Bay Trail snorkel may not raise a whole lot of enthusiasm, but there really is a lot to see here.

Following are a gallery photos of what I saw on a half-hour early morning snorkel on the underwater trail:

Hawksbill Turtle on the Trunk Bay Underwater Trail

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All about St John in the beautiful US Virgin Islands (USVI) American Paradise